Saturday, February 4, 2012

Hanoverian Grenadiers part 2 Hanoverian Uniforms.

Well after starting this bit of research for my latest Hanoverian project I have decided to post it all up in four parts.  This part deals generally with Hanoverian uniforms.

I have a few resources to draw upon Lawson vol 2, Osprey and Partizan press Armies of the 7YW along with images from Joachim Niemeyer/Georg Ortenburg prints , Saspherson, along with digital images and officer list from G.N Raspe Hanoverian Army  and the life saver of most 7YW nuts the Project SYW page.

The Hanoverian Infantry by 1742 consisted of 21 Regiments including the Foot Gaurds. These numbers were gradually increased to 24 by 1756 (two guard btns)  and 27 ( including three garrison batns) by 1763. They were numbered by a system of letters and numerals - 1A, 2A, 1B, 2B and so on.

Basic notes on Uniforms
Line Infantry 1729.
All of the line regiments were dressed in collarless red coats with half lapels, round split cuffs (in the British pattern) with cuff slashes above the cuffs, lining (turnbacks) all in the facing colour, with waistcoats to match. Both these garments were laced on the edges of the lapels, pockets, cuffs, cuff flaps and button holes, with a plain yellow or white worsted lace without any design or pattern. A red cloth strap with a single button was worn on the left shoulder of the coat to hold the belt in place. 

The cuffs of the Officers and NCO's were furnished with a three pointed slash and three buttons, the men recieved these in 1731. The buttons of the Foot Guards were gilt and bore the Royal arms of England, those of the line the Horse of Hanover.

 The breeches of the gaurd's were either blue (Schirmer) or yellow (Knotel and Morier) and straw colour for all other regiments (although red breeches may of been worn during the WAS as fatigue dress). The straw breeches could have been variant from buff through to bright yellow.

 The gaiters were white linen (Morier shows yellow) with white or buff straps and held buy 29 white horn buttons on the outer edge and held down by linen tapes under the insteps. shoes were black and square toed with a single brass buckle.

The neck stocks were originally red then later black (although 1B Alt-Zastrow/ Otten continued to wear red throughout the 7YW). 

The privates were armed with Long land pattern flintlock muskets, I believe they received 1742 tower musket pattern (with possibly wooden ramrods) and maybe the  1756 pattern (metal ramrod) for the reforms of 1758 . 
A timber stock in a variety of woods with a metal lock fittings, ramrod, sling fittings, bayonets and trigger. A brass butt plate, trigger guard, and ramrod loops, lock return side plate (opposite side of the lock),  a buff sling strap with a brass buckle. 

Brass swords with black scabbards, buff waist belt brass buckle, a wide buff belt was worn over the left shoulder with a single brass buckle (guards had a ornamental buckle)and black cartridge pouches. A brown cowhide haversack, buff straps and a tin canteen with buff belts were worn over right shoulder

Musketeers hats were generally laced in button colour and ornamented with a black cockade, with a loop and button in the button colour.  A pompom or ball tuft of different colours was worn in the hat on the left side, and two coloured tassels are also on the side corners and finally a sprig of oak leaves. 
The hat was worn well cocked with the front corner over the left eye. The front corner being virtually horizontal at the beginning of the period, gradually became higher than the others (worn at a jaunty angle!). This was to help with drill as a fully square tricorne would catch the musket from the shoulder arms to the prepare arms position. The hats were also held in place with a ribbon.

1758-62 changes
All of the line regiments coats changed somewhere in 1758, the cuffs were still slashed but the lace was removed from the cuffs, (the cuffs slashes disappeared altogether), lapels, the pockets and the waistcoat.
Lace remained around the button holes however. On each side of the coat  seven buttons and seven laced button holes on the lapels and two buttons and laced button holes below,  three buttons and laced button holes on the coat pockets, the cuffs with a single button in the middle of the slash and two laced button holes above. On the waistcoat three buttons and three laced buttonholes.

The Officers and NCO's coats were made of a better cloth and were more scarlet in colour early in the period as a officer supplied his own uniform. The officer gorgets were gilt or silver to match the coat buttons and were fastened by ribbons of the facing colour or by a small chain, those of the Guards being decorated with the Royal Arms and those of the line with the Horse. Officers wore yellow sashes over the right shoulder and carried swords with gold or silver knots (button colour). 
The battalion officers were armed with spontoons, and the Grenadiers junior officers after 1732 with fuzils. The Officers uniforms were laced on the lapels  and  thick lace on the cuffs in gold or silver (button colour). Junior Grenadier Officers armed with fusils had buff belts and a white cartridge pouch with a grenade in the middle in button colour and a smaller grenade in each corner.


The higher ranked NCO's uniforms were also laced on the lapels (pre 1758) and  thinner lace on the cuffs in gold or silver (button colour). They carried swords having knots of white or yellow silk (button colour), the sergeants were armed with halberbs and wore straw coloured gloves, those of the grenadiers were armed with fusils. The corporals uniforms were laced with white or yellow worsted lace (button colour) and had knots of the same on the right shoulder and sword knots. Buff belts and white cartridge pouch (with a grenade in the middle in button colour and a smaller grenade in each corner if in the Grenadier company).

The Grenadier wore mitre-shaped cloth caps, tall in the prussian style, with the front little flap turned up in the British style, generally the cap facing and headband was in the facing colour with lace in the button colour the bag being red.
 The fronts were decorated in various ways, sometimes with the GR or White Horse within the garter with a small L underneath, the whole was surmounted by the crown. Others had the Royal arms and supporters, In Morier these appear to be cut out of  white or yellow metal plates. 
The little flap was embroidered around the edge with Nec Aspera Terrent (Hardships Do Not Deter Us)and either a white horse of Hanover, a trophy of arms or a grenade. They were also cut in more varied designs than the British  mitre, the turn-up at the back was embroidered with a burning Grenade in Red. 

The Grenadiers carried grenades in a large pouch on a buff belt on which was fitted the match case. This changed when Grenades were no longer carried (WAS?) to a buff belt with a brass match case and chain with a larger black cartridge pouch with a single grenade in the middle with small grenades in each corner in the button colour. 

Grenadier Battalion officers (captains and above) were appointed  from the staff,  so would not of worn a mitre but a tricorne laced in their respective regimental colour and wore regimental uniforms. I suspect also the junior officers also wore a tricorne, as per the British.

Pioneers / Zimmerleute
Dressed as the grenadier in a mitre cap except it had metal chains round the sides, brown or buff leather apron, armed with a fuzil and axe. They were attached to the Grenadier company, but may of paraded with the colour party when on regimental parade. I have no reference to beards but I doubt these were worn.

I have found no information relating to Tambour majors (corporal majors) except the normal cuff lace and knots as per a NCO. The tambours were dressed as per the line except wings were attached at the shoulder, laced in the facing colour. The Grenadier company had a drummer and a fifer and wore the company mitre.

The drums were brass, hung by buff belts. Stretched pigskin faces were held in place by  hoops usually painted in alternate red and the facing colour diagonal stripes and stretched by white rope tension cords. Some  regiments may have also painted the drum in battalion badges.

The Hanoverian NCO's and soldiers all wore moustaches and their hair was worn with a more definite curl turned upwards. The pigtail was worn tied with a black ribbon.
There are images  in the case of Grenadiers, where it is shown plaited and turned up at the back of the head in the British style.

Part three will detail individual Regimental uniform details and Grenadier Mitres, and Regimental Officers.


No comments: