Wednesday, July 25, 2012

"Lord Clare" Charles Obrien


Off the painting table Lord Clare, Charles O'Brien



cheers
Matt


Thursday, July 19, 2012

Wild Geese Regiment O'Brien/Clare

The Wild Geese- Regiment O'Brien /Clare


War-battered dogs are we, fighters in every clime; Fillers of trench and grave, mockers bemocked by time. War dogs hungry and grey, gnawing a naked bone, Fighters in every clime- every cause but our own.
Emily Lawless, “with the Wild Geese”


Colonels and Officers


This Clare Regiment was raised, clothed, and armed, for the service of King James II., by Daniel O'Brien, 3rd Viscount Clare, early in 1689. On passing into France, in 1690, with the other regiments of Mountcashel's Brigade, it was called O'Brien's regiment, from the eldest son of Lord Clare, the Honourable Daniel O'Brien, through whom it was levied, and who was re-appointed there its 1st Colonel.

After the arrival in France the first 1st Lieutenant-Colonel, FitzMaurice, returned to Ireland to take possession of the property coming to him by the death of his father. The Regiment then appointed Lieutenant- Colonel Andrew Lee, formerly of the German Regiment of Greider. Lee brought with him 200 Irish veterans, the remains of Count George Hamilton's levies. Lee on October 17th was commissioned Inspector General of the Irish Troops. He was subsequently stationed with the regiment at Pignerol, and served with the Army of Piedmont, under the Marshal de Catinat, till 1693.

The Honourable Daniel O'Brien became 4th Viscount Clare in 1691, the regiment was then renamed that of Clare, instead of O'Brien. The 4th Viscount Clare died at Pignerol, in 1693, of the wounds he received at the victory of Marsaglia, at which the Clare Regiment was present. Lee was commissioned on November 18th 1693, as full Colonel, and served in Piedmont the remainder of that year, on February 6th 1694, he was created a “Chevalier of St. Louis”, and, on July 28th1694, he was made Colonel of the Regiment of Mountcashel.

The Colonelship vacated by Lee in the regiment was next filled by the son of the celebrated Duke of Tyrconnell, Richard Talbot. Talbot had served in France as a cadet; then had served as a officer in Ireland and distinguished himself at Limerick. In 1690 bought the Colonelcy of the Regiment of Limerick, upon arrival in France; he was promoted to Brigadier, April 28th 1694; and on August 20th Colonel in the place of Lee. Brigadier Talbot remained Colonel until April, 1696, when he committed some offensive against Louis XIV., he was committed to the Bastille, and deprived of his command. He never regained the regiment, yet was, after a year's detention, released from confinement, restored to active service, and fell, at the battle of Luzzara, in Italy, August 15th, 1702.

The Regiment was granted, by commission on April 8th, 1696, to Charles O'Brien, 5th Lord Clare. Charles O'Brien commanded, in 1689 and 1690, 1 of the regiments of foot in Ireland and was the Colonel of the Clare cavalry regiment, which served as late as the 2nd siege of Limerick. He was also a Captain in the Gardes du Corps or Horse Guards of King James, with which rank he arrived in France. He was afterwards attached to the Queen of England's Regiment of Dragoons a pied, under Colonel Francis O'Carroll, with which he fought at the battle of Mareaglia. He commanded the Clare Regiment at the siege of Yalenza in Lombardy; and was with the Army of the Meuse, in 1697. On the renewal of hostilities, he was attached with his regiment to the Army of Germany, in 1701 and 1702. He was created Brigadier of Infantry by brevet, April 2nd, 1703.  The corps was at Hochstedt September 20th 1703 and at Blenheim August 13th, 1704. His Lordship was made Marechal de Camp, by brevet of October 26th 1705; with the Army of the Moselle under the Marshal de Villars in 1705; He was fatally wounded the disastrous engagement of Ramillies, on May 23rd, 1706, he died at Brussels, of the wounds he had received in the action.

His son Charles, the 6th Viscount Clare was still a minor upon the death of his father however Louis XIV. reserved a right of succession to the Colonelship of the regiment for the minor; in the meantime appointing its Lieutenant-Colonel Murrough O'Brien, a very experienced and distinguished officer, to command by brevet.

Murrough O'Brien of Carrigogunnell, in the County of Limerick, belonged to a branch of the O'Briens, derived from Conor O'Brien, King of Thomond in 1406. He was present at the sieges of Orsoy and Ehimberg, at the passage of the Rhine, and the taking of Doesbnrgh, in 1672; at the siege of Maestricht, in 1673; and that year became an Ensign. He was at the battles of Sintzheim, Einsbeim, and Mulhausen, in 1674; and of Turkheim and Altenheira, in 1675. He was at the combat of Kokesberg, in 1676; and, after the death of his Colonel, Count George Hamilton, that year, was involved in the changes by which the Irish of his regiment were transferred into the Regiment of Furstemberg and of Greider. He was at the siege of Friburgh, in 1677; at the combat of Seckingen, and at the sieges of Kehl and Lichtemberg, in 1678. He served at the siege of Girona, in 1684; obtained a commission, a Captain, in 1688; and his own company, in 1689. He commanded the company with the Army of Rousillon, in Spain, under the Duke de Noailles, in 1690 and 1691; and from this company, in the regiment of Greider, was removed, in the later year, to a similar command in the Regiment of O'Brien, or Clare; preserving his rank of of Captain, according to the date of his commission in the older regiment. He fought at the victory of Marsaglia, in October, 1693; was made Major by brevet of March 12th, 1694; and remained with the Army of Italy till the conclusion of the war there after the siege of Yalenza, at which he took part In 1697, he was attached to the Army of the Meuse. He campaigned in 1701 and 1702, in Germany. He was at the siege of Kehl, the combat of Muuderkingen, and the victory of Hochstedt in 1703; and at the defeat of Hochstedt, (or Blenheim) in 1704. Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment by commission of January 25th, 1705, he served that year on the Moselle; fought valiantly at the unsuccessful engagement of Ramillies, in May, 1706; and, to the Colonelship vacated by Lord Clare's fall there, was commissioned August 11th following. He commanded the regiment in Flanders during the 6 following campaigns; in which important interval, he was present at the battle of Oudenarde, in July, 1708; that of Malplaquet, in September, 1709; was made Brigadier of Infantry by brevet, Mai'ch 29th, 1710; served at the attack of Avleux, in 1711; and at the sieges of Douay, Quesnoy, and Bouchain, the ensuing year. Transferrecl to the Army of the Rhine, in 1713, under the Marshal de Villai'S, he was engaged in the sieges of Landau and Friburgh. He was brevetted as Marechal de Camp, or Major-General, February 1st, 17 19-; and held the Regiment, again his Colonelship as the "Regiment d' O'Brien," until July 1720, when he died.

His son Daniel O'Brien, was a Colonel of Infantry in the service of France; was made a Chevalier de St. Lazare, or Knight of St. Lazarus, in 1716; was, by the exiled son of King James II., whom he regarded as King James III., created a Peer of Ireland, in 1747, under the title of Earl of Lismore, and Viscount of Tallow; was appointed a Grand Cross Chevalier or Knight of St. Louis, in 1750; and was Secretary of State to, as well as Minister from, his Sovereign, at the Court of Rome, where he died, November oth, 1759, aged 76." His Lordship son, James Daniel O'Brien, the 2nd and last representative of this Stuart title, was born in 1736; finally attained the grade of a reformed Lieutenant-Colonel to the Regiment of Clare, and the honour of a Chevalier of St. Louis; and died, some time previous to the year 1789.
Charles O'Brien, 6th Viscount Clare (usually styled in France My Lord Comte deClare)as pensioned upon, and destined to the command of, the family regiment, was, when very young, enrolled among its officers as are formed Captain, July 1st, 1703, as Captain-en-Second, October 24th, 1704, and was commissioned, as a reformed Colonel ci la suite, October 14th, 1718. He commenced his active military career with the Army of Spain, under the Marshal Duke of Berwick, in 1719, at the sieges of Fontarabia, of St. Sebastian and its citadel, of Urgel, and of Roses. On the decease of the Marechal de Camp and Colonel Murrough O'Brien, in July 3rd 1720, he was commissioned, as full Colonel of the Regiment of Clare, August 3rd following.

On the breaking out of the war between France and the Empire in 1733, his Lordship was attached to the Army of the Rhine, under the Marshal Duke of Berwick, and was present at the siege of Kehl, which capitulated October 28th. Made Brigadier of Infantry by brevet, February 20th, 1734, he served, by letters of April 1st, with the same army; was at the siege of Philipsburgh, taken July 18th; and received a contusion on the shoulder there, from the same cannon-shot which killed his uncle, the Marshal Duke of Berwick.
He was  Marshal de Camp by brevet of March 1st, 1738; became Inspector General of Infantry by order of May 22nd, 1741; and was employed with the Army of Bohemia by letters of July 20th.

 The same year, Henry O'Brien, the 8th Earl of Thomond, died in Dublin: willing his estates to Murrough, Lord O'Brien, eldest .son and heir to the Earl of Inchiquin, as Wing a Protestant; yet not forgetting Lord Clare, as a Catholic, but bequeathing him a legacy of £20,000, On his relative's decease, Lord Clare took the title in France of Comte or Earl of Thomond.

 In 1742, with the defence of the town of Lintz, in Upjier Austria, under the Comte de Segur, he displayed much resolution and bravery, until comprised in the capitulation of the place, signed February 23rd; Employed with the Army of the Rhine, under the Marshal Duke de Noailles, by letters of May 1st, 1743, he fought, June 27th, at the battle of Dettingen. On April 1st, 1744,he was created Lieutenant General.May 2nd he marched to the siege of Menin, which capitulated June 4th. Acting by letters of the 7th as Lieutenant General, and serving at the siege of Ypres, he mainly contributed, by a successful attack, to the capitulation of the place on the 27th. He was at the siege of Furnes, surrendered July 11th; and remained with the army under the Marshal de Saxe. Attached to the Army of Flanders by letters of April 1st, 1745, he was present, May 11th, at the victoiy of Fontenoy;  the gaining of which was so much owing to the valour of the Irish under his command, in contributing to break the previously-successful English and Hanoverian forces. He received 2 musket-shots there, but luckily on his cuirass; and, a few days after, was wounded by the bursting of a bomb, at the siege of Tournay, which was entirely reduced, by the surrender of the citadel, June 20th. Continued in Flanders, under the Duke de Ptichelieu, by letters of December 18th, he was destined for an embarkation, and landing in England, to second the invasion of Prince Charles Edward Stuart.

Nominated Chevalier of the Orders of the King, January 1st, 1746, he obtained permission, February 2nd, to wear the insignia of that rank. Remaining with the Army of Flanders, by letters of April 1st, took a leading part in the battle of Rocoux, fought October 11th. He was received as Chevalier of the Orders of the King, January 1st, 1747 ;. Acting with the Army of Flanders May 1st, he fought, with the Irish, July 2nd, at the battle o Laffeldt; there, as at Fontenoy and Rocoux, had a principal share in the success of the day; and had 1 of his Aides-de-Camp shot next him. Employed with the Army of Flanders by letters of April 15th, 1748, he commanded at Bilsen a body of troops, which covered the right of the army, occupied with the siege of Maestricht.

During the armistice, he was placed over the troops cantoned in the territory of Malines. He was, by letters of November 1st, 1756, Lieutenant-General in Normandy, under the Marshal de Belle-Isle. He was made Governor of Neuf-Brisac, by provision of the 5th. Created Marshal of France at Versailles, February 24th, 1757, he was nominated to command in Guienne, by order of March 1st. He took the oath, as Marshal of France, the 13th, He was named to command the troops on the coasts of the Mediterranean November 1st, 1757; and Commander-in-Chief in the Province of Languedoc, by order of the same day. He obtained the entrees chez le Hoi, by brevet of May 7th, 1758. In 1759, he was specially consulted upon, and would have been engaged in, the great landing meditated from Bretagne in Munster by the French.

The veteran nobleman's died, at Montpellier, in his 63rd year, September 9th, 1761, is mentioned in a contemporary Continental periodical, with an enumeration of his dignities, as that of
"Charles O'Brien, Earl of Thomond, Yiseount of Clare, &c., in the Kingdom of Ireland, Marshal of France, Chevalier of the Order of the Holy Ghost, Commander for the King in the Province of Languedoc, Governor of Neuf-Brisac in Alsace, and Colonel of a Regiment of Irish Infantry"

Charles O'Brien, 7th Viscount Clare, and 10th Earl of Thomond was born at Paris, in 1757. At his father's death a minor, the Colonelship of the Regiment of Clare was reserved for him.
The officer appointed was Brigadier James Fitz-Gerald. He entered the Regiment of Dillon, as a reformed or supernumerary Lieutenant, in 1730. He served at the siege of Kehl in 1733; at the attack of the lines of Etlingen, and at the siege of Philipsburgh, in 1734; upon the Rhine, and at the affair of Clausen, in 1735. He obtained a full Lieutenancy in 1739; and served, in that guide, with the Army of Flanders, in 1742. Nominated a Captain, in the same regiment, by commission of January 8th, 1743, he was at the battle of Dettingen in June; and finished the campaign on the banks of the Rhine. In 1744, he served at the sieges of Ypres and Furnes; was employed at the camp of Courtray; and obtained, October 6th, a company in the Irish Regiment of Lally, at its formation.

He commanded this company at the battle of Fontenoy, at the sieges of the town and citadel of Tournay, of Dendermonde, of Oudenarde, and of Ath, in 1745. He was granted a commission, July 11th, that year', to hold rank as a Colonel of Infantry. He served on the coasts, in 1746; fought at the battle of Laffeldt, in 1747; was at the siege of Maestricht, in 1748; and was employed, at the camp of Dieppe, in 1756. The Regiment of Lally being designed for the East Indies in November, 1756, the Sieur de Fitz-Gerald was nominated, by order of the 10th of that month, to command the 2nd battalion; but, circumstances having prevented his embarkation, he quit that regiment.

He was attached, by order of February 16th, 1757, as a reformed Colonel, to the Regiment of Clare, with which he remained, for the protection of the coasts, during several campaigns. He was created a Brigadier by brevet. May 1st, 1758. He made the campaigns of 1760 and 1761 in Germany; being engaged at the affairs of Corback and of Warburgh in 1760, and at that of Felinghausen in 1761. In consequence of the decease of the Lord Marshal of Clare or Thomond that year, and the minority of the young Earl his son, Fitz-Gerald was commissioned, September 20th, to be, during the minority, Colonel-en-Second in command of the Regiment of Clare. He obtained the grade of Marechal de Camp by brevet, February 25th, 1762; was employed as Brigadier, at the camp of Dunkirk; and Avas declared full Marshal de Camp, in the December of that year. He then resigned the command of the Regiment of Clare; and finally died, at the close of 1773.

The Sieur de Fitz-Gerald' s successor in that command was the Chevalier de Betagh,
The grand-son of this gentleman joined the Irish Brigades, was a Captain in Fitz-James'a Regiment of Horse previous to the battle of Fontenoy, or in 1744; from 1749 to 1762, had been its Major and Commandant, or acting Colonel for the Colonel-Proprietor of the Fitz-James family; was wounded with the regiment at the battle of Rosbach, in November, 1757, when it was so much distinguished; and became a Chevalier of St. Louis. Succeeding, in 1763, as Colonel en-Second of the Regiment of Clare, he was created a Brigadier of  Infantry, April 16th, 1767, and a Marechal de Camp, Janxiary 3rd, 1770; resigned the Colonelship that year; and is mentioned as still living, with the title of Count, in 1775.

He was followed, as Colonel-en-Second, in 1770, by the Chevalier de Meade,This gentleman, who had previously served in the Regiment of Lilly, continued to be Colonel-en-Second to the Regiment of Clare as long as it was kept up, or until 1775. For the young Comte or Earl of Thomond and Lord Clare dying under age, and unmarried, at Paris, December 29th, 1774, and the united titles of Thomond and Clare ceasing with this person, according to the new arrangement of the French army, already spoken of as having occurred in June, 1775, the Regiment of Clare, about 86 years from its first formation in Ireland, and 85 years from its arrival in France, was incorporated with the Irish infantry Regiment of Berwick


Organisation
1690-1701
Assuming the Clare regiment used the French organisation after the reorganisation and arrival in France.


 Staff 
1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 2 aide-major d'infanterie, , 1 aumônier (Chaplian), 1 maréchal-des-logis (logistics officer) , 1 auditeur ( pay clerk),  1 exécuteur de justice (privilege de prevote et de justice).

8 Company's of fusiliers: 1 capitaine, 1 lieutenant en 1er., 1 lieutenant en 2nd, 1 sergent, 2 cadets, 3 caporaux,, 1 tambours, 10m pikemen and 30 fusiliers.

The 9th company was a grenadier company: 1 capitaine, 1 lieutenant, 1 sous-lieutenant, 2 sergents, 3 caporaux,  1 tambour and 40 grenadiers. 

after the peace of Rijswijk the fusilier companys were reduced.

1701-13 The war of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 04 
Staff
1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 2 aide-major d'infanterie, 1 aumônier (Chaplian), 1 chirurgien-major (surgeon), 1 maréchal-des-logis (logistics officer) , 1 auditeur ( pay clerk), 1 prévôt(gendarme ou policier officer), 1 greffier (clerk of the court), 2 archers (gendarme ou policier) and 1 exécuteur de justice (privilege de prevote et de justice).

8 Company's of fusiliers: 1 capitaine, 1 lieutenant en 1er., 1 lieutenant en 2nd, 2 sergent, 2 cadets, 3 caporaux,, 1 tambours and 30 fusiliers.

The 9th company was a grenadier company: 1 capitaine, 1 lieutenant, 1 sous-lieutenant, 2 sergents, 3 caporaux,  1 tambour and 35 grenadiers. In 1715, the grenadiers ceased to be equipped with hand grenades.

1703-13

1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 2 aide-major d'infanterie, 1 aumônier (Chaplian), 1 chirurgien-major (surgeon), 1 maréchal-des-logis (logistics officer) , 1 auditeur ( pay clerk), 1 prévôt(gendarme ou policier officer), 1 greffier (clerk of the court), 2 archers (gendarme ou policier) and 1 exécuteur de justice (privilege de prevote et de justice).

12 Company's of fusiliers: 1 capitaine, 1 lieutenant en 1er., 1 lieutenant en 2nd, 2 sergent, 2 cadets, 3 caporaux,, 1 tambours and 40 fusiliers.

The 13 th company was a grenadier company: 1 capitaine, 1 lieutenant, 1 sous-lieutenant, 2 sergents, 3 caporaux,  1 tambour and 45 grenadiers. In 1715, the grenadiers ceased to be equipped with hand grenades.

At the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 the companys were again reduced in size.

 1740-48 War of the Austrian Succession

In May 1741 it was ordered that the Fusilier company's of the Irish regiments should be increased by ten men each, in order to raise them from thirty to forty men each, and those of the grenadiers by fifteen men each, in order to raise them from thirty five to forty five men each.

Staff
1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 2 aide-major d'infanterie, 1 aumônier (Chaplian), 1 chirurgien-major (surgeon), 1 maréchal-des-logis (logistics officer) , 1 auditeur ( pay clerk), 1 prévôt(gendarme ou policier officer).


12 Company's of fusiliers: 1 capitaine, 1 lieutenant en 1er., 1 lieutenant en 2nd, 2 sergent, 2 cadets, 3 caporaux,, 1 tambours and 40 fusiliers.


The 13th company was a grenadier company: 1 capitaine, 1 lieutenant, 1 sous-lieutenant, 2 sergents, 3 caporaux,  1 tambour and 45 grenadiers. 


1756-63 Seven Years War

Staff
a staff with 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 2 aide-major d'infanterie, 2 aide-major de cavalerie, 1 aumônier (Chaplian), 1 chirurgien-major (surgeon), 1 maréchal-des-logis (logistics officer) , 1 auditeur ( pay clerk), 1 prévôt(gendarme ou policier officer).

16 companies .
Each company of fusiliers: 1 capitaine, 1 capitaine en 2nd., 1 lieutenant en 1er, 2 sergents, 4 cadets,  3 caporaux, 3 ansepessades, 2 charpentiers, 2 tambours, 2 canonniers. and 48 fusiliers.

One grenadier company: 1 capitaine, 1 lieutenant, 1 sous-lieutenant, 2 sergents, 3 caporaux, 3 ansepessades, 1 tambour and 36 grenadiers. According to the regulation the captain of grenadiers didn't exceed 45 years old, similarly the lieutenant, sub-lieutenant and sergeants were not older than 40.


I am not certain if the battalion Clare received battalion artillery pieces, I have added the professionals in the company staff to man such pieces as per a French battalion. Also not 100% certain if the Irish regiments would of had their own Provost staff of 1 prévôt(gendarme ou policier officer), 1 greffier (clerk of the court), 2 archers (gendarme ou policier) and 1 exécuteur de justice (privilege de prevote et de justice as per the German regiments.

Clothing
The O'Brien regiment was clothed as most English units in red, with yellow facings, these colours also belonged to the O'Brien Family, they remained in this uniform whilst in Service with James II and France. 


Uniform details

1680 - 1690 Red Coat and white collar stock, yellow coat lining plain horizontal pocket with three white buttons with white cord knotted epaulette, red waistcoat, yellow cuffs with three white buttons, yellow trousers, yellow stockings (white trousers and stocking are also mentioned), black floppy hat with the front of the hat brim turned up with white lace (yellow hat lace is also recorded as per the uniform under James ). Spaterdashes are also recorded but it is unknown if splatterdash means heavy sock or gaiters. Grenadiers may of worn low cloth mitres in the English style. Officers armed with spontoons with heavy lace on the coats and waistcoats red sashes (as per the English regulation) worn across the shoulder. The sergeants were armed with halberds and may of worn reversed colour's (see uniform notes). Pikemen may of been wearing reversed coats colours and armour and red sashes, swords for certain, Plug bayonets for the muskets, some firelock's may of still existed in the regiment. I have also seen read a reference to pointed mitre cuffs at this time although I cannot remember where. : (


1700 Red Coat and collar yellow coat lining plain horizontal pocket with three white buttons, yellow waistcoat, yellow cuffs with three white buttons, yellow trousers, white or yellow stockings, black hat with white or yellow hat lace. Spaterdashes are also recorded but it is unknown if splatterdash means heavy sock or gaiters. Pikemen may still of existed in the regiment before 1704. Grenadiers may of worn low cloth mitres in the English style. Grenadiers also may of had belly boxes and been armed with fusils and armed with swords. Officers were armed  with spontoons, white sashes were worn by the Irish regiments in Italy.  Sergeants were armed with halberds.


1720 Red Coat and collar yellow coat lining scalloped vertical pocket with two pair (four) of white buttons, red waistcoat with white laced buttonholes, yellow cuffs with three white buttons, red trousers and stockings, black hat with white lace. Grenadiers also may of had belly boxes and been armed with fusils and armed with swords. Officers armed with spontoons and had heavily laced coats and waistcoats Sergeants were armed with halberds.


1734 Red Coat and collar yellow coat lining vertical pocket with two pair (four)  white buttons, red waistcoat, yellow cuffs with three white buttons, red trousers, white stockings, black hat with white lace. Grenadiers also may of had belly boxes and been armed with fusils and armed with swords. Officers armed with fusils and had heavily laced coats and waiscoats Sergeants were armed with halberds or perhaps fusils.


1757 Red Coat and white collar yellow coat lining plain horizontal pocket with three white buttons with single left shoulder red epaulette, yellow turnbacks, white waistcoat, yellow cuffs with three white buttons, white trousers, white stockings,white cloth gaiters, black hat with white lace. Grenadiers also may of had belly boxes and been armed with fusils and armed with swords.Officers armed with fusils and had heavily laced coats and waiscoats Sergeants were armed with halberds or perhaps fusils.


1762 Red Coat and yellow collar, yellow coat lining and lapels, plain horizontal pocket with three white buttons with single left shoulder red epaulette, white turnbacks, red waistcoat white buttons, yellow cuffs with three white buttons, white trousers, white stockings, white cloth gaiters, black hat with white lace.


Officers wore what they pleased till at least 1720 although I have one reference of reversed colour coats for a junior officer, after 1720  defiantly regimental, exception is the Hat lace which I have conflicting evidence for both silver and gold, this could follow the rank and the gorget's, silver up to captain then gold for above how ever I am not 100% certain.


Sergeant's another puzzle, perhaps they wore reversed colours pre 1714 I am not 100% certain, however I have posted a uniform transaction  contract between John Kelly, major of the regiment of Galmoy, and Paul Constant, a supplier of uniforms and equipment to the army on 2nd January 1708. Interesting to note that the regiment did not supply a sealed pattern of the uniform desired but merely requested the same pattern as had been used for the regiments of Lee, Clare and Fitzgerald. The following is a translation of the essentials of the contract in the Archives Nationales signed on 2nd Jan. 1708:

466 soldiers’ coats lined with blue serge, buttons of copper and cloth incarnat (a dull red)
22 sergeants’ coats of blue cloth, lined red, cuffs of cloth demy-ecarlatte (bright scarlet) and copper buttons.
12 drummers’ coats of blue cloth lined yellow and yellow cuffs.
As much lace of the livery of Mylord as is required.
476 soldiers waistcoats of red tricot (knitted ware) lined with cloth, copper buttons and gold coloured lace.
24 sergeants waistcoats lined with cloth and with copper buttons.

In addition for the captains :
63 ells of scarlet lined cloth (for officers’ coats linings)
63 ells of scarlet Raz de St. Lo (a very fine shaven cloth for officers coats)
and for 13 Lieutenants and the Souslieutenants –
50 ells of the same cloth as for the captains and 60 ells of scarlet Raz de St. Lo

Note: The sergeants had reversed colours, a style usual at that time in the English army but unusual in the French. The amounts would only allow for clothing 12 companies (24 sergeants and 12 drummers and around 39 men in a company). 

Musicians
I have only found one reference for Clare's drummers, yellow coats and red cuffs with french "step ladder" lace, silver lacing to pockets and five horizontal hoops on the sleeves, red trousers and white stockings, white gaiters, black tricorne laced silver. Yellow drum body with the Clare coat of arms with white hoops and cords.

The Clare regiment may also of had unofficial pipers in the ranks, as their is some evidence of pipers in the other Irish Regiments. I can find no real evidence to back this up except for a reference to pipers at Fontenoy who played "White cockade" and "Cremona" and a  set of pipes reportedly played at Fontenoy was once (at least to 1936) preserved at the Musee de Cluny, Paris. Unfortunately, by the late 1960s or so, the instrument had been likely discarded (or maybe stored). It had only two drones (both tenors or maybe tenor and baritone) in one stock and apparently a large chanter. There was a sketch made by an Alexander MacAuley, and also that there was a color picture of it in a 1902 Cluny museum catalogue. 


Irish Jacobite songs and Music etc 
As a Drum major of a Pipe band I am quite interested in the tunes of the period, popular Jacobite tunes that may of been played include:-

"Over the hills and far away" also known as "The wind has blawn my plaid away" 4/4
"Cremona" or The day we beat the Germans at Cremona 1703 3/4 time
"White Cockade " 1630 reel
"Seaghan Buidhe" (Yellow John),  also known as "Teacht na n-geana fiadhaine," or "The Return of the Wild Geese and "Over the water to Charlie" Strathspey
"An Seanduine," ("The Old Man") also known as "Hob or Nob," published in 1745. also known as "The Campbells are coming," march 6/8 time
"Tiarna Mhaigh Eo" (Lord Mayo) Air or March 4/4 time
"Maggie Láidir," or Maggie Lauder 1709 (originally Scottish 1676) Reel
"Blackbird," also known as "Royal Blackbird" slow air 4/4 time
 "Caoine Cill Cair"  for Kilcash lament 3/4 slow air
"Realtán Cill Cainnic," or "The Star of Kilkenny."
"Ormonde's Lament", 1716 also known as "Billy Byrne's Lament" 3/4 slow air
"Lord Galway's lament"  3/4time Slow air
"Captain Magan" 6/8  reel
"Carlin tighe moir" Captain O'Kane/o'Kain also known as Captain Henry O'Kain 6/8 time
 "Shaun bwee" 1736 and in 1742 it appeared with the title, "The Irish Pot Stick." The Scotch adaptation of this fine Irish melody is "Over the water to Charlie," under which name it was printed in 1752.
Tarraing Go Caoin an Sgeol (Consider the story well) also known as "Plancam Peirbig," or "Leather the Wig"9/8 time
"Moirin ni Chuillenain" (allegorical name for Ireland.)
 Lament "Roisin dubh" The little black Rose also known as  Mairghread no Roiste 3/4 time
(Lament) "Mo Gile Mear"  (my nimble lad) also known as "Will ye no' come back again" 4/4 time
 "Graine Maol" "Grace O'Malley" 6/8
Lament "Seán Ó Duibhir  a' Ghleanna." also known as John O'Dwyer of the Glen 3/4 time
March of the Clan Suibhne 4/4 time
“March of the King of Laois” 6/8 time also titleled “Rory O Moor or King of Leixs March
"March of the tribes of Galway" also titled "Sarsfield March" 
"Margaret Malone" 2/4 time

A lot of laments as you can see, if you get a chance look some of the tunes up or ask your local pipe band if they know some of the tunes.

Uniform Images
A plate of O'Brien Regiment Fusilier1772, note the green turnbacks.



An O'Brien officer1772, note the green turnbacks.

Colour's

I have found a reference to the crowns "Dans chaque quartier une couronne d'or d'Angleterre doublee rouge"("In each quarter a golden crown of England Lined red ".). So a English Crown in each quarter not a French crown

Colonels colour

regimental colour

Ensign 1745.

My effort, I inherited these figs in a swap, some Old Glory WSS minus a musician, I really like the figures and I think I may make a whole brigade for my WSS army, I have gone for the 1700 uniform with the yellow hat lace and stockings, although the uniform is later as the tricorne is quite pointed. 



I hope that it helps any of you out there trying to paint one of the Wild Geese regiments, If anybody notices any glaring omissions or have any further information to add please let me know.

regards
Matt

References

 "History of the Irish Brigades in the service of France" J.C O'Callaghan

The Irish brigades,  Esq Matthew  O'conner 1855 

Library of Ireland

The fiddlers companion ( a great selection of historical tunes and music)

Les Uniformes de La Armee Francaise Dr Lienhart and  R Humbert

War of the Spanish Succession 

The History of the Uniforms of the British Army C C P Lawson

Uniforms of the Seven Years War. W S Biles 

Uniforms of the French Army 1740-1748 Stephen Manley

Friday, March 23, 2012

Rodgers Rangers


These figures have been laying around for some time, they are from Front Ranks FIW range. I recently finished reading War on the Run, by John F Ross, so that encouraged me to paint them.  I already have a number of rangers from conquests fine range, but I do like these figs so they will join my British army as a independent company! I also have another unit in the wings but I will paint them with mixed provincial and regular uniforms.








Rodgers Rules of Ranging
I. All Rangers are to be subject to the rules and articles of war; to appear at roll- call every evening, on their own parade, equipped, each with a Firelock, sixty rounds of powder and ball, and a hatchet, at which time an officer from each company is to inspect the same, to see they are in order, so as to be ready on any emergency to march at a minute's warning; and before they are dismissed, the necessary guards are to be draughted, and scouts for the next day appointed.
II. Whenever you are ordered out to the enemies forts or frontiers for discoveries, if your number be small, march in a single file, keeping at such a distance from each other as to prevent one shot from killing two men, sending one man, or more, forward, and the like on each side, at the distance of twenty yards from the main body, if the ground you march over will admit of it, to give the signal to the officer of the approach of an enemy, and of their number, &c.
III. If you march over marshes or soft ground, change your position, and march abreast of each other to prevent the enemy from tracking you (as they would do if you marched in a single file) till you get over such ground, and then resume your former order, and march till it is quite dark before you encamp, which do, if possible, on a piece of ground which that may afford your centries the advantage of seeing or hearing the enemy some considerable distance, keeping one half of your whole party awake alternately through the night.
IV. Some time before you come to the place you would reconnoitre, make a stand, and send one or two men in whom you can confide, to look out the best ground for making your observations.
V. If you have the good fortune to take any prisoners, keep them separate, till they are examined, and in your return take a different route from that in which you went out, that you may the better discover any party in your rear, and have an opportunity, if their strength be superior to yours, to alter your course, or disperse, as circumstances may require.
VI. If you march in a large body of three or four hundred, with a design to attack the enemy, divide your party into three columns, each headed by a proper officer, and let those columns march in single files, the columns to the right and left keeping at twenty yards distance or more from that of the center, if the ground will admit, and let proper guards be kept in the front and rear, and suitable flanking parties at a due distance as before directed, with orders to halt on all eminences, to take a view of the surrounding ground, to prevent your being ambuscaded, and to notify the approach or retreat of the enemy, that proper dispositions may be made for attacking, defending, &c. And if the enemy approach in your front on level ground, form a front of your three columns or main body with the advanced guard, keeping out your flanking parties, as if you were marching under the command of trusty officers, to prevent the enemy from pressing hard on either of your wings, or surrounding you, which is the usual method of the savages, if their number will admit of it, and be careful likewise to support and strengthen your rear-guard.
VII. If you are obliged to receive the enemy's fire, fall, or squat down, till it is over; then rise and discharge at them. If their main body is equal to yours, extend yourselves occasionally; but if superior, be careful to support and strengthen your flanking parties, to make them equal to theirs, that if possible you may repulse them to their main body, in which case push upon them with the greatest resolution with equal force in each flank and in the center, observing to keep at a due distance from each other, and advance from tree to tree, with one half of the party before the other ten or twelve yards. If the enemy push upon you, let your front fire and fall down, and then let your rear advance thro' them and do the like, by which time those who before were in front will be ready to discharge again, and repeat the same alternately, as occasion shall require; by this means you will keep up such a constant fire, that the enemy will not be able easily to break your order, or gain your ground.
VIII. If you oblige the enemy to retreat, be careful, in your pursuit of them, to keep out your flanking parties, and prevent them from gaining eminences, or rising grounds, in which case they would perhaps be able to rally and repulse you in their turn.
IX. If you are obliged to retreat, let the front of your whole party fire and fall back, till the rear hath done the same, making for the best ground you can; by this means you will oblige the enemy to pursue you, if they do it at all, in the face of a constant fire.
X. If the enemy is so superior that you are in danger of being surrounded by them, let the whole body disperse, and every one take a different road to the place of rendezvous appointed for that evening, which must every morning be altered and fixed for the evening ensuing, in order to bring the whole party, or as many of them as possible, together, after any separation that may happen in the day; but if you should happen to be actually surrounded, form yourselves into a square, or if in the woods, a circle is best, and, if possible, make a stand till the darkness of the night favours your escape. 
XI. If your rear is attacked, the main body and flankers must face about to the right or left, as occasion shall require, and form themselves to oppose the enemy, as before directed; and the same method must be observed, if attacked in either of your flanks, by which means you will always make a rear of one of your flank-guards.
XII. If you determine to rally after a retreat, in order to make a fresh stand against the enemy, by all means endeavour to do it on the most rising ground you come at, which will give you greatly the advantage in point of situation, and enable you to repulse superior numbers.
XIII. In general, when pushed upon by the enemy, reserve your fire till they approach very near, which will then put them into the greatest surprize and consternation, and give you an opportunity of rushing upon them with your hatchets and cutlasses to the better advantage.
XIV. When you encamp at night, fix your centries in such a manner as not to be relieved from the main body till morning, profound secrecy and silence being often of the last importance in these cases. Each centry therefore should consist of six men, two of whom must be constantly alert, and when relieved by their fellows, it should be done without noise; and in case those on duty see or hear any thing, which alarms them, they are not to speak, but one of them is silently to retreat, and acquaint the commanding officer thereof, that proper dispositions may be made; and all occasional centries should be fixed in like manner.
XV. At the first dawn of day, awake your whole detachment; that being the time when the savages the savages chuse to fall upon their enemies, you should by all means be in readiness to receive them.
XVI. If the enemy should be discovered by your detachments in the morning, and their numbers are superior to yours, and a victory doubtful, you should not attack them till the evening, as then they will not know your numbers, and if you are repulsed, your retreat will be favoured by the darkness of the night.
XVII. Before you leave your encampment, send out small parties to scout round it, to see if there be any appearance or track of an enemy that might have been near you during the night.
XVIII. When you stop for refreshment, chuse some spring or rivulet if you can, and dispose your party so as not to be surprised, posting proper guards and centries at a due distance, and let a small party waylay the path you came in, lest the enemy should be pursuing.
XIX. If, in your return, you have to cross rivers, avoid the usual fords as much as possible, lest the enemy should have discovered, and be there expecting you.
XX. If you have to pass by lakes, keep at some distance from the edge of the water, lest, in case of an ambuscade or an attack from the enemy, when in that situation, your retreat should be cut off.
XXI. If the enemy pursue your rear, take a circle till you come to your own tracks, and there form an ambush to receive them, and give them the first fire.
XXII. When you return from a scout, and come near our forts, avoid the usual roads, and avenues thereto, lest the enemy should have headed you, and lay in ambush to receive you, when almost exhausted with fatigues.
XXIII. When you pursue any party that has been near our forts or encampments, follow not directly in their tracks, lest they should be discovered by their rear guards, who, at such a time, would be most alert; but endeavour, by a different route, to head and meet them in some narrow pass, or lay in ambush to receive them when and where they least expect it.
XXIV. If you are to embark in canoes, battoes, or otherwise, by water, chuse the evening for the time of your embarkation, as you will then have the whole night before you, to pass undiscovered by any parties of the enemy, on hills, or other places, which command a prospect of the lake or river you are upon.
XXV. In padling or rowing, give orders that the boat or canoe next the sternmost, wait for her, and the third for the second, and the fourth for the third, and so on, to prevent separation, and that you may be ready to assist each other on any emergency.
XXVI. Appoint one man in each boat to look out for fires, on the adjacent shores, from the numbers and size of which you may form some judgment of the number that kindled them, and whether you are able to attack them or not.
XXVII. If you find the enemy encamped near the banks of a river or lake, which you imagine they will attempt to cross for their security upon being attacked, leave a detachment of your party on the opposite shore to receive them, while, with the remainder, you surprize them, having them between you and the lake or river.
XXVIII. If you cannot satisfy yourself as to the enemy's number and strength, from their fire, &c. conceal your boats at some distance, and ascertain their number by a reconnoitering party, when they embark, or march, in the morning, marking the course they steer, &c. when you may pursue, ambush, and attack them, or let them pass, as prudence shall direct you. In general, however, that you may not be discovered by the enemy upon the lakes and rivers at a great distance, it is safest to lay by, with your boats and party concealed all day, without noise or shew; and to pursue your intended route by night; and whether you go by land or water, give out parole and countersigns, in order to know one another in the dark, and likewise appoint a station every man to repair to, in case of any accident that may separate you.


Such in general are the rules to be observed in the ranging service; there are, however, a thousand occurrences and circumstances which may happen, that will make it necessary in some measure, to depart from them, and to put other arts and stratagems in practice; and which cases every man's reason and judgement must be his guide, according to the particular situation and nature of things; and that he may do this too advantage, he should keep in mind a maxim never to be departed from by a commander, viz. to preserve a firmness and presence of mind on every occasion.